What Code Is For Calls To The U.S From Italy The Evolvement of 3G Mobile

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The Evolvement of 3G Mobile

The mobility of the so-called mobile rigs would consequently give way to the development of today’s generations of mobile phones. Originally, cell phones were permanently installed in vehicles, but as time progressed, they became increasingly mobile when later versions came with a cigarette lighter plug for the 12-volt power needed to operate. Because of this, this mobile set had to be unplugged and taken away to be used as a mobile or portable phone.

The idea of ​​incorporating vehicle-mounted telephones, with certain modifications, into the telephone network for use in police cruisers was developed and tested by the Swedish police in 1946. It turns out that the car battery dies after half a dozen calls. Towards the end of the 1940s, so-called radio telephones became publicly available in the United States. Since switching technology was not as advanced as it is today, these phones had to be manually patched into the phone network in order to communicate meaningfully.

Erricsson first developed the first fully automatic mobile phone system, called Mobile Telephone System A (MTA). This was published in 1956 in Sweden. It was the first time a mobile phone worked without manual intervention, but it had the disadvantage of weighing 40 kg. The next version, the Mobile Telephone System B (MTB), an improved, transistor version, used two-tone, multi-frequency signaling, weighed only 9 kg, and was introduced in 1965. The product was discontinued in 1983, with 600 subscribers using it.

The first fully successful and commercial mobile phone networks were the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) network in Finland, launched in 1971. ARP is sometimes considered the 0G version of the cellular network, as it goes slightly beyond the earlier proprietary and limited coverage. networks.

First generation mobile IG

The growth of mobile technology and mobile telephony is based on the concept of communication networks that provide voice and data communication over a wide geographical area. The system would divide large geographic areas into small radio cell areas that are interconnected. Each cell’s coverage area has one or more transmitters and receivers that communicate with mobile phones within that cell. This cellular concept gave rise to the name cellular technology. This architecture allows you to maintain continuous communication while moving from one cell to another, and when you leave one cell and move to the next, the previous transceiver hands over the call to the cell you are currently in. , maintaining smooth communication while moving.

When true mobile telephony developed commercially, it was the first generation systems (1G). These were analog systems, circuit-switched. The primary disadvantage was that the sound quality was poor, the hand-off operation was not reliable, the ability to accommodate a sufficient number of simultaneous calls was low and there was a lack of security. Mobile technology as we know it today began to develop in the 1970s and was tested in Chicago in 1973. The system used Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) technology operating in the 800 MHz band. For several reasons, since the breakup of AT&T was one, the system could not be commercialized before 1983. It was introduced in Chicago in 1983, and other cities quickly followed. Japan launched the AMPS system in 1979, and Europeans operating in their own mobile technology launched their system in 1981. It was launched in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Finland. The Europeans had a different technology and called it Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) operating in the 450 MHz band. Later, NMT was developed for 900 MHz bandwidth and became known as NMT900. Consequently, the British came up with their own technology in 1985, called the Total Access Communications System (TACS), which operated in the 900 MHz bandwidth. TACS is actually a modified version of AMPS.

The Motorola DynaTAC 8000X was the first handheld mobile phone to be commercially available in 1983 after receiving the appropriate approvals. Consequently, mobile phones began to take shape in the 1980s, when the cellular concept was introduced in mobile phones and multiple base stations were established relatively close to each other with cell-to-cell handover protocols when the mobile phone moved out of one cell. to someone else. The technology was based entirely on analog transmission systems. Cell phones were larger than today’s and designed to be permanently installed in cars, hence the name “car phone”.

The first mobile phone roaming service was launched in 1981 in Saudi Arabia. The system was called Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) and was manufactured by Svenska Radio Aktiebolaget (SRA). A month after the launch, the SRA launched country-based roaming. Soon, mobile communication became a necessity in many other countries and the world ventured towards the technology. Although many technologies were developed during this time, especially in Europe, AMPS, NMT and TACS remained the most successful. These are known to be first generation (IG) mobile systems and are said to be still in operation today. The success of the first generation of mobile telephony was successful, but the disadvantage remained that it did not have enough capacity to handle significant subscriber calls. The system was able to handle the capacity of a large number of subscribers, but when the number of subscribers began to grow in the order of millions, shortcomings in the system’s call handling appeared, primarily in densely populated urban areas. Limiting subscriber management was not the only problem. Another big issue that came up was fraud, which is a major concern. Steps were taken and 2G technology began to develop.

Second generation Mobile2G

It was then that the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), whose original abbreviation was Groupe Spécial Mobile, was formed. GSM is a global digital radio system that uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technology. This GSM technology allowed subscribers to operate simultaneously on the same radio channel by sharing time slots in full duplex mode where both could talk at the same time. Half-duplex mode is used in walkie-talkies, where one person can send one at a time.

GSM is a digital cellular technology originally created to provide a unified pan-European mobile system. The development of GSM started in 1982 and the first commercial GSM digital mobile system was activated in 1991. As the most popular standard, GSM is used by more than 2 billion people in more than 212 countries and territories. This technology greatly enabled international roaming, allowing subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM is entirely based on digital signaling, which made speech transmission clearer. With the development of this technology, the second generation of mobile telephony (2G) was created.

GSM mobile phones operate on different frequency bands, which are allocated differently in countries around the world. These frequency bands are:

850 MHz (824.2-848.8 MHz Tx; 869.2-893.8 MHz Rx)

900 MHz (880-2-914.8 MHz Tx; 925.2-959.8 MHz Rx)

1800 MHz (1710.2 – 1784.8 MHz Tx; 1805.2 – 1879.8 MHz Rx)

1900 MHz (1850.2 – 1909.8 MHz Tx; 1930.2 – 1989.8 MHz Rx)

Rx stands for receive mode, while Tx stands for transmit mode.

GSM phones in North America and Canada operate on the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands, which are different from the European frequency bands, keeping North America separate from the rest of the world. This is why if you live in the US, and even if you have a GSM phone, it becomes doubtful that it will work outside of North America and Canada, although some countries may have a frequency band that corresponds to one of the operating frequencies.

As GSM evolved, backward compatibility remained, for example, later releases added packet data capabilities using General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), offering data rates of up to 177 kilobits per second. High-speed data transfer is also introduced with Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), which provides enhanced GPRS capability. EDGE provides higher speeds of up to 470 kilobits per second, although consumers were only able to realize speeds of 100 kilobits per second on average.

The idea of ​​”roaming” formed the basis of GSM, which allowed subscribers from other networks and countries to call mobile phones anywhere in the world. Behind the simple voice process are some 600+ GSM networks around the world, and it is estimated that there are over 30,000 roaming agreements in place between operators, with more being established daily. Therefore, the complex information collection process of all roaming calls and subscriber data is continuously updated in the corresponding database, which uses a standardized approach to the costs of each roaming connection to be established.

The 2G system brought various applications in mobile telephony. In addition to voice, it supports messaging and high-speed data transfer with advanced features such as voicemail and paging, which are often built into a basic service program and, of course, a web service.

Third generation mobile 3G

Shortly after the introduction of 2G networks, the development of the third generation (3G) network began, where many of the competitors with different standards pushed their own technology. 3G is the general name for a range of mobile technologies that used a number of high-tech infrastructure networks, handsets, base stations, switches and other equipment that allowed subscribers to access higher-mode applications through their phones. These typically include high-speed Internet access, data, video and CD-quality music services.

In stark contrast to 2G systems, 3G systems were defined and specified in the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) standardization process. The IMT-2000 project, which is 3G systems, was developed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The project specifically defined a 3G system requirement rather than a technology-based standardization. For example, 2 Mbit/s maximum data transfer speed indoors, 384 kbit/s outdoors. But somehow the concept of a single standard broke down and several different standards were introduced.

3G digital cellular systems use wider bandwidth radio channels and use Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), which has a wider bandwidth than 2G digital cellular systems that use CDMA, such as GSM or IS-95 CDMA. WCDMA is usually deployed in a 5 MHz channel plan. CDMA is a digital wireless technology that allows multiple subscribers to share radio frequencies without interfering with each other. GSM is a 2G technology that uses TDMA, providing a data rate of 9.6 kbps/14.4 kbps. GPRS was introduced as a transition technology to 3G, providing speeds of up to 177 kilobits/s. This was then called the 2.5G system. The use of 2G systems may cease within 10-15 years with the use of a newer and better Universal Mobile Telephone System (UMTS) technology. In Europe, 3G broadband CDMA (W-CDMA) networks are known as UMTS, which is another name for (W-CDMA)/3G services.

Main features of IMT-2000:

A high level of design uniformity worldwide.

Compatibility of services within IMT-2000 and with wired networks.

Good quality.

Small terminal can be used worldwide.

Roaming available worldwide.

Capable of multimedia applications and a wide range of services and terminals.

3G networks are not improvements to 2G systems, but completely different technology networks that provide many improved features than 2G and 2.5G systems. The 2.5G network is the further development of the 2G system towards 3G. Japan was the first country to introduce 3G networks on a large commercial scale, with 40% of mobile phone subscribers using 3G, and 2G becoming more prominent. In 2006, Japan transitioned from 2G to 3G and is in the process of upgrading to the next 3.5G with a data rate of 3 Mbit/s.

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