What Diagram Is Used To Generate Code For Object-Oriented Systems System Development Life Cycle Methodologies

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System Development Life Cycle Methodologies

Two known methodologies of system analysis and design:

1. Structured system analysis and design method (SSADM).

2. Object-oriented system analysis and design (OOSADM).

Structured system analysis and design

SSADM is a waterfall approach. Maintainability is objective. The premise of SSAD is that if you spend more on analysis and design, the system will cost less to maintain (companies spend most of their budget on maintenance) and pay fewer corrections over the lifetime of the system. It also deals with the construction of IS, which evolves along with business needs. Many other methodologies are derived from SSAD, such as Jackson programming…

The basic thing to do is: “A large complex program is divided into many smaller, easy-to-manage programs.” The SDLC as a whole is complex; it can be broken down into many individual components such as design, implementation, analysis, design, maintenance. These components are again divided into several procedures such as problem definition, data entry…

SSADM can be thought of as the pinnacle of a rigorous, document-driven approach to system design, and contrasts with more modern rapid application development methods such as DSDM.

Every part is documented here, because projects cannot remain only in the memory of team members, if they move to a new organization or a new member joins the team, they must have a very clear vision. In this method, together with the development of the IS, the Documentation takes place. Programmers also feel comfortable doing it before than after.

Diagrams and graphical representations are necessary everywhere. a simple prototype model can show much more than a stack of documents can. All this is used to remove errors and misconceptions before starting practical development.

SSADM only provides a more reliable, usable, maintainable system. At the initial stage, this method seems more expensive and complicated, but in the long run all its advantages are visible. However, SSADM does not provide an immediate solution to the software crisis.

Object-oriented system analysis and design

This method has been a popular topic in system development in recent years. Unlike traditional development, objects in OOAD are given importance over procedures. They spend more time gathering the requirements, developing the requirements model and the analysis model, and then they become the design model.

1. Objects are identified for the first time. Objects include all people, states of beings…

Example- The objects of the college information system include students, lecturers, management; not faculty… subjects are mostly nouns

2. Each object has its own properties, which are called Attributes. Attributes are all aspects associated with an object.

Example: The students study, the lecturers teach, the management maintains the college, which is their quality.

3. All identified objects are grouped into classes, also known as object types.

Example – In this school example, all students, teachers, and employees can be grouped into one class. Staff, lecturers can be employees of a class where students do not share anything.

4. A class is defined with standard properties and all objects of the class can inherit the properties of the class of which it is a member.

Example – Students and instructors in a class can share all attendance and schedules, but not staff. For workers in a class, all wage property can be inherited, but not from another class.

5. Some objects are unique, that is, they have their own attributes that cannot be shared.

Example – An instructor may be a member of the Ministry of Economy, it cannot be shared with anyone.

6. Now that the programmer has finished working on the objects, he moves on to the procedures. Procedures are mostly verbs whose consequences change certain objects.

Example – Management hires new staff, prepares reports on student grades…

7. An object can inherit not only properties from its class, but also methods. Like all management, people have the right to hire or fire employees. All employees share in the salary.

Unit closure

All objects and procedures are linked, so changes to one do not affect the other. It’s like protecting information.

SDLC – advantage for project manager

The project manager is a specialist in the field of project management. Project managers may be responsible for planning, executing, and closing any project, typically in the fields of architecture, computer networks, telecommunications, or software development.

SDLC breaks down a complex project into many small phases, and this helps the manager to focus on all aspects of the project, which helps the organization to use resources efficiently, maximize profits, gain user trust, and produce an effective product. .

Traditional project management often uses heavyweight, predictive methodologies such as the waterfall model, but software project managers must also be proficient in lightweight, adaptive methodologies such as DSDM, SCRUM, and XP. These project management methodologies are based on the uncertainty of developing a new software system and support smaller, incremental development cycles. These incremental or iterative cycles are time-framed (limited to a known period of time, typically one to four weeks), and at the end of each iteration, a working subset of the overall system is produced to be developed. The prevalence of lean approaches is largely due to the fact that software requirements are very sensitive to change, and it is extremely difficult to elucidate all possible requirements in a single project phase before starting software development.

A software project manager is also expected to be familiar with the SDLC. This may require in-depth knowledge of requirements elicitation, application development, logical and physical database design, and networking. This knowledge is typically the result of the aforementioned training and experience. There is no widely accepted certification for software project managers, but many hold the PMP designation offered by the Project Management Institute, or an advanced project management degree such as an MSPM or other technology management degree.

1. Problem recognition

New systems will be developed when the leader feels

o New business needs IS.

o For IS Management of already existing business needs. There was a money lending business where documentation is important, and after certain stages the business exits the manual stage, where IS is used.

o The existing IS is not sufficient to manage the business. A former student IS has a capacity of 1000 students, 900 are already studying, and if new batches join, then modifications are required.

So if the management of an organization feels that they have a serious need for a system, or if there is a big gap between their needs and those provided, they look for a system analyst who performs a feasibility test.

The result of this step is a brief summary of what the problem or need for IS is in an organization. Depending on the outcome of the problem identification, the next step (feasibility) takes place in an SDLC.

2. Feasibility test-

The problem is already known. In this test, the problem is clearly defined and it can be decided whether a new system is feasible, meaning whether it can be built or not. Many things have a big role to play in the economic state, the technical state…

The analyst notes exactly what a new IS needs or what the problem is with the existing IS.

EX- In the student IS example, if 1000 capacity and 900 studies. If a new batch arrives within 1 year, then an IS must be prepared in 1 year for the next 6 years with a capacity of 6,000.

4 feasibility should be analyzed

Technical – If the organization’s facilities support IS or not.

Operational – Does the organization have the human resources to actually deploy and maintain the IS?

Economic- Can the organization afford the IS.

Scheduling – The time frame required to build the IS.

Ex- Before new students come, IS must be ready.

Second, it should predict the post-development scenario, that is, the situation after the IS is built.

These are called system benefits. Decrease in expenses or increase in profits. For example, in the IS example of the student, the system helps to reduce expenses, but there is no extra profit.

The result of this step is called a cost-benefit analysis. If, after viewing, an organization feels that it is worth doing the next phase of the IS (Analysis), or the entire process of the SDLC is interrupted because it is now worth working and spending on a worthless IS. If the feasibility result is positive, the project continues or is terminated.

3. Analysis

In this step, the old system is clearly studied. All requirements for the new system or modification of the old system are prepared. This is where fact-gathering techniques come into play, such as reading existing documentation, interviewing users, managers, users, and examining procedures. Does the analyst now understand how the old system is structured? How should it work, why was it built this way?

Here there is a revolutionary step called prototyping. The analyst creates a model of a new system that is not actually exactly what needs to be done, but is mostly the same. It helps the user have an idea of ​​what to get and reduces afterthoughts that come only after the system is complete. Prototyping is a powerful SDLC tool.

The result of this step is that the analyst has all the details about the old system as well as exactly what to expect from a new system. This phase has two outcomes:

o Problem specification

o Prototype.

Now we provide all these results to the management to achieve the performance. Management decides to continue or discontinue the project.

4. System design

From the analysis phase, it became clear what the final equipment should be. In this phase, all hardware and software are ordered to arrive by the construction phase. All plans for the system are created here.

The result of this phase:

o Design specification

o Design documentation

All this consists of hundreds of pages. A programmer reading the documentation should be able to build the system, even if they are not aware of all the previous steps. All documentation is tested for accuracy by users, management and analysts. If management is satisfied with the proposed design, it will proceed with construction, or it will be redesigned or canceled.

5. Detailed planning

We prepare the environment, write and test the programs, prepare the documentation. The output of this phase is a coded and tested system ready for conversion.

The problem specification and the design specification are understood by the programmers, then they will code the program. Here, the parser is not active unless a programmer suggests a change.

Then again, this includes conversion. This is the phase when all old systems are replaced by new ones. All data is entered by users, sometimes directly from the old system. Again, this conversion is phased. Part of the old system will be replaced in the first month, another part in the following month. Here we are talking about parallel operation, where the old and the new IS work together.

6. Maintenance

Changes occur during the operation of the system. Most of the IS costs are in the maintenance phase. Maintenance is required to correct system errors and adapt to a dynamic business environment.

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